This page is dedicated to the creation of background map with R. Three other sections exist for chloropleth, connection and bubble map. It displays many example using different projections, colours, boundaries and geographical
positions. To make a map, you need the information of the shapeof your countries, regions or whatever zone. This info is sometimes available in python libraries, or can be loaded as a shape file in python. This page relies on 2 main tools.
The Cartography library allows to make high quality static maps, and Leaflet allows to make google map style interactive maps. A lot of tools currently exist in R, but I hope you will be able to fit most of your needs with these 2 tools.